The MPSOFC uses a porous mixed ionic and electronic conducting composite as the anode. The anode is formed from highly dispersed nano-sized particles and applied as a multi-layer thin film directly onto the surface of the YZS electrolyte. The anode material is composed of YSZ, nickel oxide and an organic binder. Several proprietary electrocatalytic substances are introduced into the anode after the sintering to improve its performance. Ongoing work to optimize the YSZ/nickel ratio for each anode layer, to develop the most effective and stable electrocatalist, and to improve the process of deposition of the anode film onto the electrolyte has seen significant strides.